LOG#187. Hypothetical particles: the list.

Fast post! List of particles not yet confirmed or completely confirmed to exist:

  1. Preons. (“boojums” and “snarks”?)
  2. Pre-preons.
  3. Prequarks.
  4. Rishons.
  5. Subquarks.
  6. Haplons.
  7. Hexads/Hexons (and trons?).
  8. Bradyons (tardyons, ittyons).
  9. Superbradyons.
  10. Elvisebrions.
  11. Erebons.
  12. Darkons.
  13. Z'.
  14. W'.
  15. X-bosons, X-particles.
  16. Y-bosons, Y-particles.
  17. Luxons (beyond the gluon, photon, graviton).
  18. Planckons.
  19. Maximons (and minimons!).
  20. Tachyons.
  21. Magnetic monopoles.
  22. Dyons.
  23. Tetraquarks.
  24. Pentaquarks.
  25. Hexaquarks.
  26. Multiquarks (N>6).
  27. Glueballs (not yet identified).
  28. Chameleon particles.
  29. Dark photon.
  30. Dilaton.
  31. Dual photon.
  32. Magnetic photon.
  33. Yershovian preons.
  34. Gravitons (should we wonder, having detected gravitational waves?).
  35. Non-linear gravitons (Penrose’s proposal).
  36. Pressuron.
  37. Sterile neutrino (seesaws predict a NEW energy/mass scale not being the Planck scale, but M_N, such as m_\nu=M_D^2/M_N; to get a realistic Dirac mass, the Planck scale is not valid, you need M_N\sim 10^5-10^{12} GeV or M_N\sim 10^2-10^9 TeV in order to use seesaws as neutrino mass generating mechanism).
  38. Acceleron.
  39. Bilepton.
  40. Graviphoton.
  41. Graviscalar.
  42. Majorons.
  43. Majorana particles (fermions being their own antiparticle).
  44. Sparticles (supersymmetric particles).
  45. Wino.
  46. Zino.
  47. Sneutrino.
  48. Squark (sup, sdown, sstrange, scharm, sbottom, stop).
  49. Sfermion (sneutrino, selectron, smuon, stau).
  50. Saxion.
  51. Neutralino.
  52. Sboson.
  53. Photino.
  54. Gravitino.
  55. Higgsino.
  56. Gaugino (sbosons).
  57. Gluino.
  58. Higgsino.
  59. Curvaton.
  60. Doubly charged Higgs bosons (predicted by some seesaws).
  61. Exotic hadron.
  62. Exotic baryon.
  63. Exotic meson.
  64. Cosmon.
  65. Black hole electron.
  66. Holeum.
  67. Macroholeum.
  68. Inflaton.
  69. Plekton.
  70. Q-ons.
  71. QP-ons.
  72. Pomeron.
  73. Skyrmion.
  74. Sphaleron.
  75. Unparticles.
  76. LSP (lightest supersymmetric particle).
  77. R-hadrons.
  78. Minicharged particles.
  79. Fractons.
  80. Monopolium.
  81. Mirror/shadow matter.
  82. p-form fields (e.g., Curtright fields). They appear is superstring/M-theory. 2-branes and 5-branes are naturally coupled to 3-forms and 6-forms (gauge potentials), i.e., they are driven by p-form curvatures (4-forms, 7-forms).
  83. Nothoph.
  84. Anyons.
  85. WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles).
  86. SIMPs (Strongly Interacting Massive Particles).
  87. KK-particles.
  88. Technifermions (predicted by technicolor theories, now dormant due to the Higgs boson discovery…Soon rebooted?).
  89. BPS-states.
  90. Subquantum particles.
  91. Superstrings.
  92. p-branes/Dp-branes (critical, fundamental).
  93. Virtual black hole (virtual p-branes…).
  94. Infotons.
  95. Chronons.
  96. Choraeons.
  97. Topons/Spin networks.
  98. Chromons.
  99. Flavons.
  100. Geons (particle-like version).

Did you know any other? Let me know…By the way, some hypothetical astrophysical objects (macroparticles):

  1. Preon stars.
  2. Boson stars.
  3. Planck stars.
  4. Fluid or superfluid stars.
  5. Black stars.
  6. Dark stars.
  7. Quark stars.
  8. Strange stars.
  9. Cosmic strings.
  10. Kugelblitz.
  11. Gravastar.
  12. Fuzzballs.
  13. Quantum star.
  14. Exotic Compact Object (ECO).
  15. Ultra-compact object (UC).
  16. Wormholes.
  17. Cosmic strings.
  18. Cosmic defects.
  19. Black holes (what are they, at the end?).
  20. Gamma Ray Bursts (what are they, at the end?).
  21. Fast Radio Bursts (what are they, at the end?).
  22. Cosmic rays (origin?).
  23. White holes (really equal to black holes?).
  24. Magnetospheric eternally collapsing object (MECO).
  25. Extremal black holes.
  26. Superextremal black holes.
  27. Geons (likely, the thing which made Star Wars light sabers possible…).

With respect to black holes (BH), honouring Stephen W. Hawking 75th birthday, let me add some types of black holes (vacuum solutions to Einstein Field equations). By size, BH can be (exotica like Holeum or macroholeum will not been considered):

  1. Quantum (planckian) BH. I will include here the hypothetical subplanckian radii BHs, if any…
  2. BH electron (or particles).
  3. Micro/mini black holes.
  4. Stellar mass black holes, SMB. (about M_\odot-100M_\odot).
  5. Intermediate mass black holes. IMBH. (10^2M_\odot-10^6M_\odot).
  6. Supermassive black holes, SMBH. (about 10^6M_\odot-10^{10}M_\odot, is the upper limit of BH mass justified? Can they grow even more massive?). SMBH are know to the engines of quasars, blazars and active galactic nuclei (AGN).

The stars like white dwarfs or neutrons stars can evolution into BHs. Specially if they are in binary systems. Binary BHs are the target of gravitational wave observatories (gravoscopes). LIGO has found some binary BH mergers. They have cool names. Specially, GW170104. According to the type of charges BH have (astrophysical BHs are expected to be fully characterized by Kerr solutions, but corrections are envisioned if you believe, as me, that general relativity is not the fully story…), they are:

  1. Schwarzschild BHs. Spherically symmetric, static. Only have mass M and position in space-time. (X,M).
  2. Rotating BHs. In addition to mass, they have spin J. Specified by (X, M, J), or equivalenctly, by M, a, where a=J/Mc.
  3. Charged BHs. Also called Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. They have charge and mass, i.e. (X, M,Q). The charge can be usually electric only, but BHs with electric and magnetic charges can be also constructed, so Q is such as Q^2=Q_e^2+Q_m^2.
  4. Cosmological BHs. They have cosmological constant, so they are dS, AdS black holes. X, M,\Lambda.
  5. Rotating, charged BH. It is called Kerr-Newmann black hole. (X, M, J, Q).
  6. Rotating, charged BH with cosmological constant. (X, M, J, Q, \Lambda).
  7. Taub-NUT like solutions. They include the gravimagnetic mass or NUT parameter N, such as m=M+iN, and m^2=M^2+N^2. So, they are (X, M, N).
  8. Petrov type D BH solutions, also named Plebánski-Demiánski black holes. The most general, to my knowledge, BH solution. Here I am using BH solution as a misnomer (likely) of EFE solution (soliton-like!). (M, N, J, Q, \Lambda, \alpha). The next cube shows you the general map of type D solutions:

Virtual, binary of n-ary BH systems are left apart. Some types of BH have severan event horizons, being multihorizon solutions. The event horizon is, like you know, the surface (hypothetical) where light can not scape from gravity. It is one of the classical BH anatomic parts. What parts? Well:

  1. Event horizon (sometimes, several horizons are possible, even cosmological horizons). They are usually characterized by some radius, like Schwarzschild radius.
  2. Photon sphere (a really cool and weird place).
  3. Ergosphere.
  4. Singularity (the place, where known physical laws are not valid; to be erased, some people argues, by a true quantum gravity theory without singularities). Hawking-Penrose theorems on the gravitational singularities and their inevitable consequence of any gravitational theory, so you need a quantum gravitational theory to supersede them. A quantum gravitational theory to rule them all!

As the black hole information paradox is yet unsolved (after more than 4 decades!), some people are beginning to consider radical solutions. Maybe, event horizons do not exist. Then, what? Proposals: firewalls, Planck stars (remnants are great again?), fuzzballs, fluid analogues, Bose-Einsteind condensates (Dvali-Gomez proposal of BH as graviton condensates is interesting),…Pick one, the stranger, the better. Or imagine your own solution. Higher dimensional analogues of BH do also exist. The Myers-Perry black hole solution is the equivalent to Kerr solution in higher dimensions. Even more, have you wondered if BH with other topologies are possible? Not in D=4. So, if you find out a black ring in Astronomy, it could prove that our Universe is not 4D. Anyway, you get in this way (extra dimensions):

  1. Myers-Perry black holes (higher dimensional BH, Kerr-like).
  2. Black rings.
  3. Black tubes/supertubes.
  4. Black saturns.
  5. Black folds (in general).

Black holes are interesting objects in astrophysics because the natural stellar evolution seems to predict them (or something very similar to it, as condensates or compact objects). From white dwarfs (WD), to neutron stars (NS), giving up the exotic compact objects (quark or preon stars), you are left with black holes. The Chandrasekhar and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volfoff (Landau too!) limits are quite true. And the relation of these objects with explosive events like supernova, kilonova, hypernova events, and likely to GRB or FRB are going to be studied not now only, but also in the future. Black hole thermodynamics is a solid field right now, and the Hawking process, the M-\sigma relationship, the quasi-periodic oscillations of X-ray in SBH systems, the Blanford-Znajek or Bondi accretion are yet to be more and more studied, and directly observed. The Event Horizon combo-radiotelescope wants to pick an image of our SMBH, that is, this 2017 winter we could see what the Milky Way SMBH, about 4 million of solar masses fat, looks like! I wish you will not suffer spaghetification after it. Tidal forces are related to gravity. And you are not a super-saiyajin in order to support them all, but SMBH have strong gravity and (assuming basic physics holds) few density. I mean, bigger BH are not quantum! You need quantum gravity to describe supermassive TINY (or very dense) objects, not the biggest!

Other EFE solutions, not just “BH”, are the pp-spacetime, the FRW (Friedmann-Robertson-Walker) spacetime we use in cosmology, the Godel spacetime and other exotica.

Primordial BH (PBH) could be evaporating right now via Hawking radiation. They should have about the moon to do it. Primordial BH as dark matter has regained popularity recently. PBH could make all the DM under certain conditions. Erebons? Not yet! Planckons? No, but transplanckons. Since naked singularities are know expected to be reasonable (or to exist!) analogue modes including dark energy stars, gravastars, Planck stars, wormholes or white holes have been analyzed and re-analyzed from time to time. Recently, as well, some BH with hair have appeared. The classical no-hair theorem seems to be very naive in current time. The BH information paradox, as Hawking and Strominger have speculated in the last 2 years, requires likely the existence of (at least) some kind of “soft hair”. Soft hair is related to extra fields and that could be connected to dark matter and dark energy. I am not going to treat supertranslations or super-rotations (the BMS group) today, but it is something worth studying with formidable implications in the near future. We are not, of course, going to build the BH starship Louis Crane proposes, with data

but, anyway, I certainly would be interested if safe in order to go out from my planet! I am not going to do a cosmic censorship to my species today, but I am worried…Perhaps, I should become holographic, according to the holographic principe we can be (innerly) described by a field theory in the boundary of our space-time (outerly). And BH complementarity is not enough to save the information. ER=EPR could do it! And yet, that entanglement is the key, as Keanu and Paul Rudd say here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hi0BzqV_b44

Entanglement and quantum computing (likely quantum gravity too) are approaching. Quantum games and protocols will be revolutionary. And people are not ready yet! Are BH non-singular in the inner shells and we don’t understand them yet?

See you in another blog post. (Quantum) Entanglement is the key! Entanglement reduces uncertainty. Entanglement is related to gravity (how? how do entangled states gravitate?)

P.S.: Let me know about hypothetical weird particles I did not include!

This post is dedicated to S. W. Hawking, for his 75th birthday.

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