LOG#180. Hadronic mysteries.

Hi, everyone! Today is not today. Elementary particles are known to fall in two species, taking for granted the Standard Model (SM): bosons and fermions. The SM bosons are photons, gluons, W and Z bosons and the recently found Higgs … Continue reading

LOG#107. Basic Cosmology (II).

Evolution of the Universe: the scale factor The Universe expands, and its expansion rate is given by the Hubble parameter (not constant in general!) Remark  (I): The Hubble “parameter” is “constant” at the present value (or a given time/cosmological age), … Continue reading